Different Types of Brain Stroke
A stroke is a medical emergency that happens when the blood flow to your brain is interrupted. Without blood, your brain cells start to die. This can cause serious symptoms, lasting disability, and even death. A stroke occurs when part of the brain loses its blood supply and stops working. This causes the part of the body that the injured brain controls to stop working. It is also called a cerebrovascular accident, CVA, or “brain attack.” A stroke can sometimes cause temporary or permanent disabilities, depending on how long the brain lacks blood flow and which part was affected. Complications may include:
- Paralysis or loss of muscle movement.
- Memory loss or thinking difficulties. Many people who have had strokes experience some memory loss. Others may have difficulty thinking, reasoning, making judgments and understanding concepts.
- Emotional problems. People who have had strokes may have more difficulty controlling their emotions, or they may develop depression.
- Pain. Pain, numbness or other unusual sensations may occur in the parts of the body affected by stroke.
Types of Brain Strokes
Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke. It happens when the brain’s blood vessels become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow (ischemia). Blocked or narrowed blood vessels are caused by fatty deposits that build up in blood vessels or by blood clots or other debris that travel through your bloodstream and lodge in the blood vessels in your brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke: Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in your brain leaks or ruptures. Brain haemorrhages can result from many conditions that affect your blood vessels. Factors related to hemorrhagic stroke include:
- Uncontrolled high blood pressure
- Overtreatment with blood thinners (anticoagulants)
- Bulges at weak spots in your blood vessel walls (aneurysms)
- Trauma (such as a car accident)
- Ischemic stroke leading to haemorrhage
Transient ischemic attack (TIA): A transient ischemic attack (TIA) sometimes known as a ministroke is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you’d have in a stroke. A TIA doesn’t cause permanent damage. They are caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.
Causes of Brain Stroke
- Thrombotic stroke
The blockage of an artery in the brain by a clot (thrombosis) is the most common cause of a stroke. The part of the brain that is supplied by the clotted blood vessel is then deprived of blood and oxygen. As a result of the deprived blood and oxygen, the cells of that part of the brain die and the part of the body that it controls stop working. Risk factors for narrowed blood vessels in the brain include:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol,
- Embolic stroke
Another type of stroke may occur when a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque (cholesterol and calcium deposits on the wall of the inside of the heart or artery) breaks loose, travels through the bloodstream, and lodges in an artery in the brain. When blood flow stops, brain cells do not receive the oxygen and glucose they require to function and a stroke occurs.
- Cerebral haemorrhage
A cerebral haemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. A cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) causes stroke symptoms by depriving blood and oxygen to parts of the brain in a variety of ways. Blood flow is lost to some cells.
Symptoms of Brain Stroke
The different stroke types cause similar symptoms because each affects blood flow in your brain. The only way to determine what type of stroke you may be having is to seek medical attention. If you or someone you’re with may be having a stroke, pay particular attention to the time the symptoms began. Some treatment options are most effective when given soon after a stroke begins.
Signs and symptoms of stroke include:
- Trouble speaking and understanding what others are saying.
- Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg.
- Problems seeing in one or both eyes.
- Trouble walking.
Treatment for Brain Stroke
Treatments for stroke depend on many factors. These include what kind it is and how long it lasted. The sooner you can seek help after a stroke, the more likely you’ll have a better recovery.
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Treatments for TIA include taking medications that will help prevent future strokes. These medications include antiplatelets and anticoagulants. Antiplatelets reduce the likelihood that components of your blood called platelets will stick together and cause a clot.
- Ischemic stroke
The ischemic stroke treatments you receive depend on how quickly you get to a hospital. They also depend on your individual medical history.
If you seek treatment within three hours for this type of stroke, your doctor may be able to give you a medication known as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This medication, which is delivered through an IV, can dissolve the clot.
- Hemorrhagic stroke
Hemorrhagic stroke treatments involve trying to stop bleeding in your brain and reduce the side effects associated with brain bleeding. Side effects may include increased intracranial pressure. Surgical procedures include surgical clipping or coiling. These are designed to keep the blood vessel from bleeding further.
Knowing your stroke risk factors, following your doctor’s recommendations and adopting a healthy lifestyle are the best steps you can take to prevent a stroke. If you’ve had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA), these measures might help prevent another stroke. The follow-up care you receive in the hospital and afterwards also may play a role. Many stroke prevention strategies are the same as strategies to prevent heart disease. There are many lifestyle changes you can adopt to reduce your risks of ever having a stroke or a reoccurrence. For further information regarding these kindly visit Nikhil Hospitals, one of the Best Neurology Hospital in Hyderabad. They intended to serve the patients with the utmost care, compassion and commitment.