The brain is a soft part in your head which is protected by a hard bony skull. It is a combination of several nerves, tissues, arteries and veins which are very sensitive. A brain haemorrhage is a condition caused when an artery in your brain bursts. This is a medical condition, also known as intracranial haemorrhage.
The blood from the artery burst flows all over the brain and compresses certain areas in the brain, creating extra pressure that leads to a haemorrhage stroke. The extra pressure that developed in the brain damages the tissues in the brain and also prevents the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain tissues.
Lack of oxygenated blood to the brain can cause swelling and degenerates the brain cells — the leaked blood forms into a mass, known as a haematoma.
Types Of Brain Haemorrhage
The types of brain haemorrhages are classified based on the location of the bleeding:
- Intracerebral haemorrhage: In this type, bleeding happens inside the brain.
- Subarachnoid haemorrhage: Here, bleeding happens between the brain and the membranes covering it.
- Subdural haemorrhage: In this type, bleeding occurs above the brain and under the inner layer of the dura membrane.
- Epidural haemorrhage: This is when bleeding occurs between the skull and the brain.
Causes Of Brain Haemorrhage
There are various causes and risk factors that result in brain haemorrhage. Below are the most common causes of brain haemorrhage:
Head Trauma or Injuries: The most common cause of brain haemorrhage is head injuries. These head injuries are mostly caused due to traffic accidents, collisions in sports, falls etc
High Blood Pressure: This is a chronic condition that weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. The fragile walls of the arteries inside the brain are more susceptible to damage and significantly increase the risk of a brain haemorrhage.
Abnormalities In Blood Vessels: This is a condition of weak blood vessels which may be developed at the time of birth. It is also known as Arteriovenous malformations, and they can result in leakage of blood and lead to brain haemorrhage.
Brain Tumours: The main complication with brain tumours are bleeding within the brain. As we discussed earlier, internal bleeding causes brain haemorrhage.
A Brain Aneurysm: This is a condition where the walls of blood vessels are abnormally-shaped(swelling). The swelling may burst at any time and bleed into the brain, leading to a haemorrhage stroke.
Amyloid Angiopathy: This condition where Amyloids(proteins) deposited inside the walls of blood vessels in the brain. This makes the blood vessels more brittle and likely to bleed, leading to brain hemorrhagic or intracerebral haemorrhage.
Bleeding disorders like haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia also leads to excessive bleeding. Usage of Cocaine and its products results in intracerebral haemorrhage(narrow your blood vessels) which may burst. Use of methamphetamine, liver diseases, usage of blood thinners etc. can also lead to brain haemorrhage.
How To Recognise Brain Haemorrhage?
The symptoms of brain haemorrhage depends on various factors like location and severity of bleeding, the quantity of tissue damaged etc. Symptoms may appear suddenly or overtime. If you observe any symptoms mentioned below, reach out for a doctor immediately.
- Difficulty in swallowing
- A sudden and severe headache
- Vision problems
- Difficulty in reading, speaking & writing
- Numbness in the face, arm and leg
- Confusion or difficulty in understanding
- Loss of balance and coordination
- Nausea, dizziness & vomiting
- Apathy, sleepiness
- Loss of consciousness
Some other common symptoms which include seizures, sudden weakness, tingling sensation, hand tremors, abnormal sense of taste etc.
Treatment For Brain Haemorrhage
There were different treatment options for a brain haemorrhage and are based on various factors like location, cause, and extent of the bleeding. Early diagnosis and treatment results in a better outcome.
- Open surgeries are performed to drain out blood out of the brain to relieve pressure and repairs the torn arteries.
- In the case of a hematoma, the fluid surrounding the brain is removed to create room so that the swelling does not damage the brain cells.
- Certain medications like anti-anxiety drugs, anti-epileptic drugs are used to control the symptoms like blood pressure, seizures and severe headaches.
- Long-term treatment is necessary to overcome the damage caused to the brain by the brain haemorrhage. Rehabilitation treatments such as physical, occupational and speech therapy play a key role to restore brain functions and to improve communication.
At Nikhil Hospitals, we have the best neuro doctors to take care of your brain haemorrhage problems. Not only brain haemorrhage if you have any other neuro problems book an appointment and take better suggestions from our top neuro doctors.